EDTC 6431 Individual Project

Phase 1:

The lesson will be identifying parts of an atom and how they relate to the periodic table of elements. I plan to modify an existing lesson plan I created and introduce some technological elements. It includes protons, neutrons, electrons and electron shells as well as a few of the column and row patterns in the periodic table of elements

Phase 2:

  • General characteristics – 9th grade, age-14/15, ethnic group-mixed, sex-mixed.
  • Specific entry competencies -The pre-assessment for these learning targets and lesson plan would be that they have ipads or computers with which to interact and that they are aware substances are made from some 100 different types of atoms which combine in various ways. Pure substances are made from single type of atom, and each ones has characteristic physical and chemical properties. So I would ask the class to think of all the elements they know. Compile the list on a whiteboard as the students make suggestions. If some students suggest compounds (such as water or air), clarify the difference between elements and compounds.

Learning Objectives:

  • Audience: Who are the students?
    • 9th grade students will
  • Behavior: What action will they be asked to demonstrate?
    • Label the subatomic particles of an atom, and describe an organizational pattern of the columns and rows in the periodic table as it relates to the subatomic particles to atomic mass, number and electron shells.
  • Conditions: What is the activity or condition under which the behavior will be observed?
    • On the handout working alone or in a group
  • Degree: What is the desired degree/level of mastery for the learned skills?
    • Within 15 minutes and achieve a score of 100%


RST.9-10.7 “Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. (HS-PS1-1)”

ISTE 1 “Creativity and Innovation- Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology. A. Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products or processes. B. Create original works as a means of personal or group expression. C. Use models and simulations to explore complex systems and issues. D. Identify trends and forecast possibilities.”

ISTE 2 “Communication and collaboration- Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others. A. Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others employing a veriety of digital environments and media. B. Communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats. C. Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures. D. Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.”

Central Focus:

“Students who demonstrate understanding can: Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.”

Academic Language (that the student is already familiar with):

Vocabulary of elements, atoms, shells and subatomic particles

Phase 3:

The strategy and resources I have chosen for my lesson would be to Q&A previous knowledge, introduce with powerpoint, have students draw or demonstrate knowledge on Seesaw, share a few with the class, go back to the powerpoint that has a link to a periodic table of elements modeling software and take questions and manipulate the model, do a group activity with an elemental guessing game then perform an exit survey.

I would need to work the night before to make sure the links work and that I will be able to answer questions regarding the materials.


For resources I would use the following to address my instructional strategies:



They will need ipads/PCs or smart phones, hopefully I work in a district that provides those things, and if a student prefers to bring in/use their own I hope there are no rules against it. The room will need a projector and PC for the powerpoint (or a smart board). The technology I have chosen helps support the lecture, but also adds to the unifying community nature through the use of boards and real time sharing.


The Substitution: Tech acts as a direct tool substitute, with no functional change

  • Online textbook is substituted for paper text

The Augmentation: Tech substitute, with functional improvements

  • Seesaw features allow for students to draw the structures instead of just label them on paper

The Modification: Tech allows for significant task redesign

  • Sharing their work online with other students with the use of seesaw to get feedback

The Redefinition: Tech allows for the creation of new tasks, previously inconceivable

  • Having the students explore electron properties and publish their findings based on ideas of how something might interact
  • Create their own quiz questions based on the modeling of the behavior of electrons from that exploration

Phase 4:

  • What will you do to actively engage your students in the lesson?
    • I will be introducing the materials, recapping previous knowledge, moving around the room to make sure voices are heard, questions are answered and students are engaging in the activity. Working with the seesaw app to have students draw and label parts of an atom. Submit the work to the board
  • How will you engage your students to practice new knowledge or skills?
    • I will draw a name out of a pile of Popsicle sticks to get each person to interact with some element of the technology and offer one “phone a friend” but get put back in the pile.
  • What role will technology play in supporting the learning?
    • They will be cementing the knowledge by interacting with the models and demonstrating understanding by submitting materials online for review. The exploration of the properties of electrons through electronic modeling is something that could not be done without expensive resources and time. If I can get the students to understand those properties with that technology then it greatly supports the future learning of all things related to electrons
  • Where would you place your use of technology in the SAMR Model?
    • I believe they would be creating new tasks, so I place the use of technology at the redefinition stage
  • How will you provide formative assessment during your lesson?
    • There is an option to comment on each post as they come in, so I plan to do that as an extension of lab notebooks each assignment can be properly stored in folders or tagged with people and concepts for later reference.
  • How will you determine whether the lesson was successful?
    • An exit survey and positive test results!

Outline of how I will:

  • Require active mental engagement
    • Each student will have a choice of how to interact with the lesson whether it be drawing, coming up with quiz questions or modeling the electron properties and explaining it to others.
  • Require practice of new knowledge/skills
    • Have each student participate, and follow up with them on the assignments when they are due. The practice of the new knowledge is fundamental to it sticking!
  • Support learning with tech and media
    • I would encourage the students to reach out for more resources if they find this particular lesson interesting. I would also encourage them to relate this to a current event, personal interest or even a video game idea. If I can support the students learning through other means, and they can create a new model for understanding that would help future students I am all about it.
  • Provide performance feedback prior to formal assessment
    • I plan on leaving comments with each submission if needed. That is easily done with seesaw, and I wouldn’t need to collect hundreds of possibly contaminated paper notebooks to do it! I could provide them with real time feedback from anywhere.
  • Determine success of lesson
    • I imagine a teacher has a pretty good impression if a lesson connected with students and what can be improved, outside of that I would be relying on an exit survey.

Materials and artifacts from lesson:

I can ask these questions that I have put together:

Example questions


And they can answer by drawing and submitting materials on seesaw:

Seesaw example.png

They can use the online textbook to help come up with answers:

Text example

And they can use the modeling technology to compare the behavior of electrons to that of other charged particles to discover properties of electrons such as charge and mass to help solidify their ideas and understandings.:

Modeling example

Here is a snapshot of the PowerPoint that would display the exit question:

Exit survey

Phase 5:

I did not have much time between Phase 4 and 5 so I am not able to review the plan with a live student audience or in front of another instructor. But in doing the exercise I can see where I might run into some snags on time. So I might trim down the pattern recognition part, or introduce it only to delve into it the following day.

ASSURE Instructions from the Teacher:

The “A” stands for Analyze the learner. Who are your students? While this seems to be common sense, the step is important because keeping your students in mind will help ensure that you work diligently to find those materials and resources that will be most appropriate and useful to your students. You should know who your students are (e. g., demographics, prior knowledge, academic abilities) on a multitude of levels, and use this knowledge in every lesson you plan. For those of you who are in administrative roles at your institutions, you will first need to determine who your students are for this activity. You may choose to create an activity for existing students at your institution or for other educators.

The first “S” stands for State standards and objectives. If you are a classroom teacher you most likely have a curriculum to teach with specific standards and objectives that will become a focus of individual lessons. What are these standards and objectives? What should be the outcomes of the lessons that your students will know or learn? Each lesson will probably be tied to curricular standards/objectives and this step reminds you to keep these as a focus of the student learning. If you are in an administrative role at your school, you will need to identify standards/objectives for the students you have chosen. Besides content standards, you should identify ISTE standards students will meet in your lesson.

The second “S” is Select strategies and resources. When choosing strategies and resources to help you teach a lesson, you will first choose a strategy for delivering your instruction. For example, you might decide that having your students work in small cooperative groups is most appropriate, or you might determine that a lesson is best taught using a tutorial. You then select the technology, media, and materials that best supplement or enhance the method of teaching you have chosen. You will have to decide which technology, media, and materials can best help your students master the learning objectives you have identified.

The “U” stands for Utilize resources. In the last step you identified specific strategies, technology, media, and materials to help meet your learning objectives. In this step, the lesson is actually taught and strategies, technology, media, and materials get implemented. In this step you should preview all resources you plan to use to make sure they are good fits for your students and the lesson. Next, you will prepare the resources. This may include things like the following examples: set up accounts for students (technology), create links to YouTube videos (media), and create web pages with instructions (materials). Then you will prepare the environment. Where will you be teaching this lesson? Online? In a classroom? What will you need to do to prepare the learning environment for the activity? Next, you will prepare the learners. Are they prepared to learn the content and technology skills in your lesson? Finally, you will provide the learning experience. What teacher-centered and student-centered learning activities will you provide to your students? You will teach your lesson with your own students or organize a group of learners to participate in the lesson. Note: While it would be great if you were able to teach this lesson to a group of students that you work with regularly, we realize that this might not be possible so you may need to find a group of learners for this lessons.

The “R” stands for Require learner participation. Your students will find learning more meaningful when they are actively involved in the learning process. Students must be mentally engaged in their learning in order to demonstrate understanding of new knowledge and skills. What strategies can you use to get your students practicing? Thinking? Solving? Creating? Developing? Analyzing? While a lecture can be an efficient way to deliver instruction, it may not invite students to move beyond passive learning. Integrating technology into a lesson almost necessitates that you use a teaching method beyond lecturing. How will you support learning with technology and media? How will you provide feedback on student performance prior to formal assessment?

Finally, the “E” stands for Evaluate and revise. This is one of the most important steps and should not be overlooked. As part of this step, you will evaluate your own teaching, evaluate the student learning, and make needed revisions for the next lesson and for the next time you teach the current lesson. Evaluation includes determining the worth of your teaching methods and the media used. During the evaluation stage, you utilize traditional and authentic assessment to determine student achievement of the standards and objectives. You should ask yourself questions such as, “Did this lesson address the objectives?” “Did students learn from this lesson?” “How can this lesson be improved?” “Would individual work or group work be more effective for parts of this lesson?” “Was the technology and media appropriate?” “Are there other technology solutions that might have worked better?” While this is not a comprehensive list of questions, this should provide you with some direction for the evaluation phase. You should also ask students to reflect on their learning and the experiences they had during the lesson. Perhaps your students will have feedback that could help you to improve the lesson for next time or feedback that could help you improve future lessons for them. Having things go wrong during a lesson does not make a teacher a bad teacher. However, failing to reflect and take corrective and preventative actions for the future is bad teaching. After reflecting on your lesson, you will make a list of possible changes you would make before teaching it again.


The ASSURE model is just one strategy to effectively integrate technology into curriculum. As you become more experienced with ASSURE, you may find that the steps in the model are second nature, and you may even modify them to better fit your own curriculum development. As you revise lessons from year to year, remember to keep in mind new and emerging technologies that might be more effective.

The ASSURE model is not a lesson plan by itself. It is an Instructional Systems Design (ISD) process used to design instruction that integrates technology.  Using it along with a lesson planning tool of your choice can help you design and develop appropriate learning activities for your students. You can use SPU’s lesson planning template if you like. For this project, you will use the ASSURE model to create a lesson or activity that you will teach during this term. Remember, the lesson can be for students that you teach as part of your job or can be for a group of learners that you organize specifically for this project.

Phase 1 Deliverables

Create a Google Doc that you will add to throughout the project. Within the Google Doc create a Phase 1 section where you will describe the lesson or activity that you plan to use for this project. It can be an existing lesson with minimal technology integration that you plan to modify or can be a new lesson. You should provide a brief overview of the lesson without going into details about standards, objectives, etc. Complete the document by reflecting on any concerns that you have as you begin this project. Note: You do not have to teach the lesson as some may not be in a position where this is possible. Finally, begin the process of creating a table of contents for this document so that it will be easy to access any part of the document as you add phases.

Phase 2: Analyze Learners | State Standards and Objectives

In this phase you will describe who your learners are and the standards and objectives the students will be working towards to achieve competency during the lesson.

Analyze learners

Before working on the actual lesson, you need to know who your target audience is. Who are your students?  Write down the following information about the students who will participate in the lesson:

  • General characteristics – grade, age, ethnic group, sex, mental, emotional, physical, or social problems, socioeconomic level, and so on. Your students may be adult learners. The lesson you design may be for professional development rather than a student course.
  • Specific entry competencies – prior knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

State standard and objectives

Once you are confident that you know who your students are, you can begin describing the standards for the lesson.  What standards will be addressed in this lesson? You should address both content and technology standards.

Use the standards to create learning objective or a learning target for the lesson. Think in terms of what students should be able to take away from this activity. Consider using the ABCD method to write at least one learning objective for your lesson. Note: The YouTube video link uses the term “instructional objectives.” For our purposes instructional objectives and learning objectives are the same thing.

The ABCD’s of writing learning objectives are:

  • Audience: Who are the students?
  • Behavior: What action will they be asked to demonstrate?
  • Conditions: What is the activity or condition under which the behavior will be observed?
  • Degree: What is the desired degree/level of mastery for the learned skills?

Example:  Eighth grade social studies students (Audience) will score proficient or higher on (Degree) all rubric criteria (Behavior) for their digital storytelling project (Condition).

In this case the entire rubric is referenced in the learning objective because it would be difficult to write a learning objective for individual criterion that require qualitative judgements such as “excellent use of a dramatic question.”

Note: There is a wide variety of tips on how to write learning objectives. While it is important for you to organize your project with learning objectives, feel free to use another format that you are more familiar with or that is required by your school.

Phase 2 Deliverables

Add a Phase 2 section to your project Google Doc. Include a general analysis of your learners. Avoid adding details that will identify specific students. List the standards and objectives that will be addressed in your lesson.


Phase 3: Select Strategies and Resources | Utilize Resources

Select Strategies and Resources

Once you know your students and have a clear idea of what standards and objectives they should meet by completing the activity, then you are ready to determine the strategies you will use to address the objectives and select the appropriate resources which include instructional methods, media, and materials.

  • Strategies: What instructional strategy or strategies are most appropriate to address the standards and objectives for your students.
  • Resources: What resources are most appropriate to address your instructional strategies?
    • What technology will be support these strategies?  Technology includes websites, software programs, music, videos, and images. You will also need to include the necessary hardware such as computers, cell phones, clickers, projector, interactive whiteboard, etc. Look for ways to use existing technology and free tools where possible.
    • Media: What media would best support your strategies, technology, and students?  Media options include text, still images, video, audio or any combination.
    • Materials: What other materials will be needed to help students master the objectives? Textbooks, library resources, etc. should be identified.
    • This is a good place in the project to use the SAMR and TPACK models to inform the decisions you make about the use of technology in your lesson. For example, is the technology you have chosen a simple substitution of a non-digital technology without additional benefits that can transform the lesson? -OR- Does the technology you have chosen support the pedagogy but adds very little to helping students better understand the content?

Utilize Resources

Once you have the strategies and resources identified, it is time to prepare and utilize the resources by teaching the lesson. In this phase you will prepare and in Phase 4 you will teach the lesson. The first step is to preview all resources and test all equipment in advance to be sure all elements of the lesson work as expected and you know how to use them.  Since you will using digital equipment and digital tools, do not assume that everything will work for the activity.  Be sure to have a plan B.  Do not get discouraged if technology fails.  Do your best to prepare and test your resources and be prepared to alter your plans if the technology or another element of your lesson fails.

Phase 3 Deliverables

Add a Phase 3 section to your project Google Doc. Describe the strategies and resources you chose for your lesson. Explain how the technology, pedagogy, and content work together to enhance or transform the lesson. Describe what you did to preview and prepare the resources and learning environment.


Phase 4 Utilize Resources and Require learner participation

Students learn best when they are actively involved in the learning.  Incorporate questions and answers, discussions, group work, hands-on activities, and other ways of getting students actively involved in the learning of the content.

Require learner participation

In Phase three you prepared your students and learning environment. Phase four begins with you providing the learning experience. This is where you will teach or pretend to teach the lesson. I would love to be able to give you feedback on the lesson so it would be great to arrange for me to come to your school and watch if possible. Otherwise just simulate as if you taught the lesson and image what might happen.

Questions about the lesson

As you prepare to teach this lesson consider the following:

  • What will you do to actively engage your students in the lesson?
  • How will you engage your students to practice new knowledge or skills?
  • What role will technology play in supporting the learning?
  • Where would you place your use of technology in the SAMR Model?
  • How will you provide formative assessment during your lesson?
  • How will you determine whether the lesson was successful?

Phase 4 Deliverables

Submit a Google Doc of lesson/activity plan outlining how you:

  • Require active mental engagement
  • Require practice of new knowledge/skills,
  • Support learning with tech and media
  • Provide performance feedback prior to formal assessment
  • Determine success of lesson

Submit materials and artifacts from lesson.

Phase 5 Evaluate and revise

A good learning activity evolves into a great activity over time. It become great by incorporating an iterative process where you reflect upon the lesson, the stated objectives, the instructional strategy, the instructional materials, and the assessment and determine if these elements of the lesson were effective or if one or more of them need to be changed the next time the lesson is done.

Evaluate and Revise

What will you review and change as you look to improve the lesson?

  • Review conventional and authentic assessments from the lesson to determine learner achievement of standards and objectives.
  • Examine the instructional process and impact of using tech and media.
  • List modifications to lesson to address any concerns.

Phase 5 Deliverables

Blog post with lesson and reflection. Include lesson artifacts where appropriate.



Professional Philosophy of Education and Developmental Theory


I recently put the finishing touches on my personal background reflection essay and because of this not much has changed in how I thought I would teach so I intend to explore how my professional philosophy of education and developmental theory has changed but more importantly what were the reinforcements to this philosophy that I gained this semester.

Professional Philosophy of Education and Developmental Theory

I find myself in teaching situations where I rely heavily on the works of others to provide merit to the instruction. It’s the idea that it has been said before, and most likely said better. Or perhaps what I feel is necessary to support a claim is that backing of someone else’s words. The readings of Tolstoy gave me the inspiration I needed to recognize that the requirements of each generation of learners evolves from the previous requirements and to continue to find the best way to teach each new set, is to evolve with them. He remarks that at each time in history that corresponding school of thought was pertinent for that time, but now is our time to make a difference in the student’s current environment. I appreciate that permission to adapt, and within this adaptation we are able to provide what the student’s needs.

During this semester I received affirmation of the merits of learner-centric teaching. I feel like most people remember the intention behind the content, not so much the memorization of it. So in this sense the learner becomes the subject, and in watching how they interact with the materials, one could find out what sticks and work with that to create a sense of self-discovery. I still believe people learn best when they are free to explore ideas they are curious about. I think nurturing this innate curiosity outside of the confines of requirements is where real progress is made.

This philosophy relies heavily on an honest feedback system. So I believe it is imperative to first create an atmosphere of comforting acceptance. In this manner fostering that feedback as well as practicing and encouraging that honesty will help to not only evaluate the system, but to tailor their experiences. I was just recently introduced to the idea of exit surveys, they are anonymous and because of that invite honesty. I think another way to create a conducive atmosphere to self-discovery is to start lectures off with thought provoking quote, and to give kids a fun once a week quiz based on a topic that is currently interesting them about lifestyles, social, economic, political or environmental topics. I have also been introduced to the concept of “me” charts, starting a year out with the students public self-description and having them develop the rules of conduct that they wish to instill for their class will help create a starting point. As is evident at this point I am very interested in working science into self-betterment, global education should involve learning for something, rather than about something (Ellis, pg. 8).

One of my philosophies about the importance of building communication skills involves finding ways to get students to become interdependent in a way that is not cheating. Robert Muller inspired me to consider that “a child born today into a world of 4 billion people will, if he or she reaches the age of sixty be sharing the earth with three times that many human beings.” Muller goes on to say that “A child born today will be both an actor and a beneficiary or a victim in the total world fabric, and he may rightly ask: ‘Why was I not warned? Why was I not better educated? Why did my teachers not tell me about these problems and indicate my behavior as a member of an interdependent human race?’” (Ellis, pg. 7). This reminds me that people will need the skills to work with other people, more so in the future than ever before, and I believe it is our place as teachers to not only provide them the tools and practice to do so, but inspire them to want to. In this age of YouTube instruction it is easier than ever to co-exist with minimal interactions, or finding these interactions on public forums that are unburdened of the responsibility of immediate personal consequences.

I feel the pinch of specialization in our field, capitalism encourages people to find niches, and in these pockets of experts there are often few interdisciplinary connections. But this is an eventual detriment because we are missing the potential applications. While I feel it is unrealistic to do all, it is important to keep in mind the potential sources of bridges to other disciplines and find time to explore them. This can be mimicked in the classroom, by bringing in content related to their other classes, or guest speakers and materials from other disciplines.

There is so much to know about our natural world, and it is easy to feel like ones subject is the most important, but if the chemistry student understands how a chemical is structured, but can’t deduce how it interacts with the cells biologically then they lose the most valuable perspective of their work, the potential of application. Our current system relies on a few people to connect the dots among a sea of information and we can better prepare students to look for the bigger picture of society (without overwhelming them), instead of only narrowing the focus to find economic wealth.

In utilization of my philosophies: I look forward to helping high school students realize that they are often held to higher expectations than that of “adults” or of their own parents, and finding ways to reinforce that they are capable of learning, and motivating them with a compelling vision that will hopefully influence them to reach for their ideal selves. I look forward to helping them look for more sides than just one, and determining what is within their choices, and accepting what they have no control over. I am not an expert in my field, so I also look forward to the challenge of keeping up with them and their interests, but most of all I am excited to discover new ways of accommodating, adapting and communicating to a diverse set of individuals and finding what makes them work.


Ellis, Arthur. (2014) Multicultural Education Session 7. http://mountainlightschool.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/session-7-ellis-multicultural-education.pdf

I Can Teach

For the first time I have laid witness to John Deweys’ guiding principles of progressivism within a classroom. I had an opportunity to speak to 4 sessions of 8th grade science classes at SAAS and found how student centered learning can be operated. These kids were given the materials to explore what interests them and came prepared with questions about what they found. This active inquiry based system allowed for the students to draw lessons from the content and engage their curiosity for how our lab did things, the process of getting us to our findings, how much it cost, personal stories of the pediatric patients etc. They were very interested in the stories behind the science, and this engagement I attribute to this experimental learning, and the way the teacher let the individual pupil difference influence instruction.

I am all about inspiring optimism for societies future, mixing up the disciplines across ages, and can appreciate the sentiments of school as “home”, class as “family” and teacher as “parent-guardian”. I can teach the content and find ways to provide for that lifelong means of intellectual development. There is a pendulum that swings between student centered vs. knowledge/society-oriented education and I believe that in the moderation between the two, we can find relief.

Learning Illustrated

I appreciated the story of illustrated learning from the candles in the quiet auditorium for Veterans day and the exercise when we got to come up with our own. My teammate gave me some great ideas like pictures of the graduating class, and the awards and recognition that help his class achieve. The cadence achieved from marching and the knowledge gained from the order and coordination was inspiring, turning off the electricity, picking up trash on the side of the road to illustrate taking care of the environment.

It reminds me how effective these RSA animations are for selected influential speakers. In finding new ways to combine learning with illustrations we can reach a much broader audience, reaching our ultimate mutual goal across the ages of passing on knowledge. https://www.youtube.com/user/theRSAorg

Artful teachers match the learning with the realms of interest, uniting something about what interests them.

“Believe in courage” – Woody

Clear and Unclear Windows

The architecture of moral education was very clear to me. That the 5 responsibilities of service (volunteerism), honesty (truth), civility (obedience), kindness (mercy), participation (cooperation) and commitment (work) are based on the respect of the environment (property and creation), society (family, elders, others), religions and yourself. With these standards one can achieve not only effectiveness but also eclipse into greatness. We are taught “Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness” is our right by birth, when the bigger picture lies in our responsibilities first.

I appreciated the notes about cardinal virtues being built not legislated, a balance between the two extremes. That the buddy system forces bullies into roles, the value of a peer.

Unclear: I wanted to write the quotes from the walls of the hall, but didn’t have a chance to record them!




Characteristics of an Effective Educator

In my opinion an effective educator is one that strives to achieve all aspects of the architecture of moral education. That the 5 responsibilities of service (volunteerism), honesty (truth), civility (obedience), kindness (mercy), participation (cooperation) and commitment (work) are based on the respect of the environment (property and creation), society (family, elders, others), religions and yourself. With these standards one can achieve not only effectiveness but also eclipse into greatness.

With the responsibility of a teacher comes being a leader in your field, a facilitator of learning, being receptive to feedback and continuing to be a self learner by staying broad and current on instructional strategies. How does one go about being a facilitator of learning? being clear about expectations and instructional goals, being knowledgeable about their students and their development in social contexts, and developing connections to other disciplines to relate those subject matters to their own.

Key words of disposition were tossed around in class, empathy, compassion, engaging, excitement, encouraging, etc.